CSR Africa - Social performance portal

CSR Africa provides African entrepreneurs with quantitative information on the social performance of their sector and a library of resources for improvement. 

This portal presents the quantification and monetization of six key social impacts and water use. Water use was included because, besides having an environmental impact, it also has a potentially large social impact. The social impacts that were analysed in this project are Insufficient income and social security; Gender discrimination; Health & safety; Harassment; Freedom of association; and Overtime. More info on the content and calculation of these social impacts can be found in the methodology section.

In order to improve their social performance, information on good practices is made available: gender responsive structures; healthy and safe working conditions; fair remuneration and employment security; freedom of association and optimization of water use.

Starting from the Kenyan floriculture sector, it aims to extend to a variety of (horticultural) sectors and countries throughout the continent. 

Kenyan floriculture 

The Kenyan flower sector has been chosen as the first application of CSR Africa, because of its importance for the Kenyan economy and the leading position in the international market.

Customers increasingly ask for horticultural products that are produced in an environmentally friendly way and with good labour conditions, as evident in the growing demand for certified flowers. In addition, throughout the supply chain, actors are faced with increasing expectations with regards to human rights, compliance and due diligence.

To address these trends, growers face a challenge. They don’t know exactly how they are currently performing on sustainability (compared to the sector) and where they can improve in the future, without reducing profits. This portal wants to provide flower growers with a quantitative social impact assessment and resources on opportunities for cost-effective improvements that can be taken.

Within the floriculture sector, Kenya is known for being relatively advanced in Corporate Social Responsibility and, therefore, it provides a fertile ground for innovative initiatives such as this one. The research also builds upon previous work of the project team to improve CSR in rose production.


Icons are designed by Freepik; Good Ware; Lucy G; Pixel perfect; SimpleIcon from Flaticon


Copyright © 2018 csrafrica.com All rights reserved.


CSR Africa partners with a select few organisations to carry out the project. A brief overview of these organisations is given below.

Ufadhili Trust is East Africa’s leading proponent of Social Responsibility. Founded in 2001 as a non-profit, support organization under the Public Trust Act (Laws of Kenya), Ufadhili Trust exists to promote a culture of responsible, sustainable and ethical practice among businesses, governments and citizen in East Africa.

Ufadhili is the main CSR partner for Hivos East Africa and supports growers that want to improve their social performance with trainings, CSR programs and connections to local solution providers.


This project was supported by Hivos and empowered by True Price.

Hivos International seeks new and creative solutions to persistent global problems, working towards a a free, fair and sustainable society.  It is active in 43 countries worldwide.

In 2012, Hivos started the Women@Work campaign to bring about decent work for women who earn their living in global production chains, with a focus on horticulture.

Hivos’ campaigns focus on three main areas: capacity development, specifically in countries in Eastern and Southern Africa; advocating for enforcement of women workers’ rights and their economic empowerment as part of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) and implementation of decent work for women; highlighting women’s work and rights of women workers in the flower industry through consumer action calling for fair flowers.

Hivos International

Hivos East Africa

Hivos Southern Africa

Hivos Middle East and North Africa

Impact Institute is a social enterprise aiming to contribute to an economy that creates value for all. We do that by developing innovative methods to measure and value impact and by providing leading companies and institutions with the tools they need to measure, value and improve impact. We specialize in monetizing external costs.

We developed the first method to monetize social costs for products and the first method to systematically measure the profits of businesses to all stakeholders. With our True Price method, we measure and monetize external social and natural capital costs of value chains.


Copyright © 2018 csrafrica.com All rights reserved.


This pilot study measured the 2016 social performance of two rose producing farms in the Mount Kenya region. The primary data in this pilot study comes from two farms in the Mount Kenya region who agreed to be extensively researched. A total of 80 workers were interviewed. The secondary data was acquired from leading articles and reports published on the topic. A list of key references is provided below.

The results of this assessment were published here and a tool (the Social Impact Quick Scan tool) was constructed for other farms to measure their own social performance and compare it to the performance of the sector. The social performances were all calculated according to the True Price method

Social costs and the True Price method

The True Price method quantifies the social impact of business activities throughout value chains following recognized Human Rights frameworks. This is in accordance with the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Quantified impacts are then turned into monetary values using remediation costs. These costs are the costs that would be borne in order to restore or redress the negative side effects of the assessed social impacts.

More in detail, remediation costs take into account the costs to compensate for losses of income of producers, if not already taken into account in the financial cost of production, and employees, as well as losses of health and wellbeing for producers, employees, their families and society at large. These represent, for example, the cost that should be paid to give sufficient remuneration and sufficient entitlement to social security and paid leave to all employees or to give equal pay for equal work to male and female employees. Furthermore, the costs of implementing selected prevention measures and the legal fees that would have to be paid for key impacts, such as complying with health and safety standards for monitoring working conditions is also taken into account.

The social impact assessment quantifies and monetises six unique impacts: Wages and social security, Health and safety, gender equality, overtime, freedom of association and harassment.

Wages and social security measures the extent to which employees are paid a living wage, using the Anker & Anker published living wage for the region, and receive legal social security contributions, like unemployment and healthcare payments.

Health and safety measures the extent to which the farm workers are trained in health and safety and work according to proper health and safety procedures (e.g. wearing proper personal protective equipment).

Gender equality measures the extent to which women are paid equally for doing the same work as men and whether female workers are given adequate access to paid maternity leave.

Overtime measures the extent to which employees are performing unpaid and excessive overtime, where excessive is defined as over the legally allowed overtime hours for a week.

Freedom of association measures the extent to which workers are free to unionise and form or join other work related organisations.

Harassment measures the extent to which workers experience harassment at the farm. This includes verbal, physical and sexual harassment of varying degrees.

The assessed impacts detailed above are based on leading Human Rights and International Labour Organization conventions.

More information can be found at www.trueprice.org

Copyright © 2018 csrafrica.com All rights reserved.

Key References - Sector

KFC. (2018). FAQKenyaflowercouncil.org.  

Royal Flora Holland. (2018). Rose. Royal FloraHolland. 

Key references – Social performance

Anker, R., & Anker, M. (2017). Living Wage Report Kenya: With a focus on rural Mount Kenya Area Context Provided in Horticulture Industry (pp. 1-52). ResearchGate. 

Anker, R., & Anker, M. (2014). Living Wage for Kenya with Focus on Fresh Flower Farm area near Lake Naivasha (pp. 1-68). 

Cheeseman, N. (2014). The gender gap in Kenya – taking stock and moving forward | Democracy in AfricaDemocracyinafrica.org. 

Cherono, C. (2012). Factors Affecting Violence Against Women in Kenya: a Case of Live with Hope non-governmental Organization, Kericho County, Kenya (pp. 1-71). Nairobi: University of Nairobi. 

Gibbon, P., & Riisgaard, L. (2013). A New System of Labour Management in African Large-Scale Agriculture?. Journal Of Agrarian Change14(1), 94-128. 

Jacobs, S., Brahic, B., & Olaiya, M. (2015). Sexual harassment in an east African agribusiness supply chain. The Economic And Labour Relations Review26(3), 393-410. 

KHRC. (2012). Wilting in Bloom: The Irony of Women Labour Rights in the Cut-flower Sector in Kenya(pp. 1-83). Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission (KHRC). 

Kirigia, E., Betsema, G., van Westen, A., & Zoomers, E. (2016). Flowers for food? : Scoping study on Dutch flower farms, land governance and local food security in Eastern Africa (pp. 1-70). Utrecht: University Utrecht. 

Mekonnen, M., Hoekstra, A., & Becht, R. (2012). Mitigating the Water Footprint of Export Cut Flowers from the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya. Water Resources Management26(13), 3725-3742. 

Omosa, M., Kimani, M., & Njiru, R. (2006). The Social Impact of Codes of Practice in the Cut Flower Industry in Kenya. Institute For Development Studies, 1-124. 

van der Wal, S., & Scheele, F. (2015). Goodness Guaranteed: Assessing the impact of sustainability certification on the labour conditions of farm workers (pp. 1-77). Amsterdam: SOMO. 

Wilshaw, R., Sahan, E., Boyle, G., Knaggs, K., & McGregor, N. (2015). Exploring the Links between International Business and Poverty Reduction: Bouquets and beans from Kenya (pp. 1-128). London: Oxfam.  

Key references – Good practices

Aidt, T., & Tzannatos, Z. (2002). Unions and Collective Bargaining Economic Effects in a Global Environment (pp. 1-185). Washington: The World Bank. 

BSR. (2010). AgroAmérica: Improving Productivity Through Better CommunicationBsr.org.  

BSR. (2010). Investing in Women for a Better World her+ project (pp. 1-22). BSR. 

Floral Daily (2017) Many invest in Reverse Osmosis and Ultra-Filtration Kenya: Drought forces growers to save water.  

Friends of Naivasha. Fairtrade Flower FarmsFriends of Naivasha.  

Ghuliani, C., & Goldenberg, E. (2015). Financial Inclusion in the Supply Chain An Evaluation of the HERfinance Pilot in India (pp. 1-64). San Francisco: BSR.  

Green Farming. (2014). Better growing conditions by movable screens: Climate management in East African greenhouses (pp. 1-16). Green Farming.  

IFC. (2013). Investing in Women’s Employment Good for business, good for development (pp. 1-108). Washington: IFC. 

Labuschagne, L. (2017). Can biological control really work? (pp. 1-47). Thika: The Real IPM Company (Kenya) Ltd.  

Potjer, B., Bergman, E., Scholte, M., & Bani, M. (2015). Creating shared value in the rose supply chain Exploring the business case for a living wage rose (pp. 1-40). True Price. 

Sivananthiran, A., & Ratnam, C. (1994). Social Dialogue at Enterprise Level Successful Experiences(pp. 1-135). New Delhi: ILO. 

Vellekoop, E. (2017). Kenya: Drought forces growers to save waterFloraldaily.com.  

Copyright © 2018 csrafrica.com All rights reserved.

Privacy statement CSR Africa


Your privacy is important to us. It is CSR Africa's policy to respect your privacy regarding any information we may collect from you across our website, http://www.csrafrica.com. We are committed to safeguarding the privacy of our website visitors and service users.

What happens to my data?

We receive your personal data via forms on the website of CSR Africa for being able to help answer your requests or questions. We will also do this when you request information, inquire about our activities, ask a question, respond to us on our website or on social media or contact us in any other way.

CSR Africa can collect contact data such as your own and/or your company's name, your address, telephone number, email address, details, or data that is relevant when you contact us or create a profile. We collect this data for providing our services and operating our website.

In addition to the personal data you actively provide to CSR Africa, we can collect and process some data on your use of our websites. This concerns data on the device you use, the version of the operating system and settings of the device you use to visit the website and social media of CSR Africa, as well as data on the use of our website, such as the date, time and location of your visit and the pages viewed.CSR Africa is a partnership of Impact Institute (Netherlands), Hivos International (Netherlands) and Ufadhili Trust (Kenya).

Your personal data and third parties

CSR Africa will never sell your personal data to third parties. We may share some personal data within partnerships when that is necessary in order to carry out our mission and only with your permission.

Your rights

We use your data to enable us to operate the website, provide you customized service, help you as well as possible and/or to inform you about our activities by email or telephone. Your personal data will be stored for no longer than is necessary for the purposes for which the personal data are processed. You can always get access, without charge, to your data controlled by CSR Africa, and amend or delete this data where required. You can also object to receiving targeted information about our services we give to you by email, telephone, post. You can do this by contacting the using the contact form of CSR Africa, by telephone, email or letter.

Is my data safe with CSR Africa?

CSR Africa has taken physical, technical and organisational measures to protect your personal data. We make use of a secured server that can be accessed by authorised persons only. Any data you enter on our online forms is sent securely. We engage third parties for the performance of our services. Where these third parties process personal data in the performance of their services, they do this in the capacity of processor. All our processors are obliged to protect your personal data. We conclude agreements with all our processors in which this is explicitly stated.


CSR Africa uses cookies to makes its websites more user friendly. A cookie is a simple small file that is stored on the hard disk of your computer. You can read below which cookies we place and which choices you can make.

Functional cookies

CSR Africa uses cookies to facilitate the full use of our website. If you do not accept them, you will only have limited access to our website.

Analytics cookies

CSR Africa uses Google Analytics to collect information about, for example, the date and time when you visit our websites and the pages you view. We use this data to improve our sites, to compile traffic statistics (such as the times of the day or days of the week when the websites attract most visitors) and to measure the popularity of the different parts of the site. We use this data in aggregate form only and cannot trace it to a computer or individual. We may also use Visual Website Optimizer and Hotjar to test different versions of our websites and landing pages to find out which one works best.

You can install the Google Analytics Opt-out Browser Add-on to prevent our websites from passing on information about your visits to Google Analytics.

Dutch Data Protection Authority

Under the EU privacy legislation, you have the right to submit a complaint to the Dutch Data Protection Authority about how we process personal data. You can contact the Dutch Data Protection Authority for this purpose.

Questions and comments

If you have any questions about our privacy statement, please contact Impact Institute: Kabelweg 57, 1014 BA Amsterdam, 020 240 3440 info@impactinstitute.org

Amendments to our privacy statement

CSR Africa reserves the right to amend this Privacy Statement. We therefore recommend that you consult the privacy statement regularly, so that you remain up to date about any amendments.

August 2019

Copyright © 2018 csrafrica.com All rights reserved.